# Dictionary Definition

dice n : small cubes with 1 to 6 spots on the
faces; used to generate random numbers [syn: die]

### Verb

1 cut into cubes; "cube the cheese" [syn:
cube]

2 play dice

# User Contributed Dictionary

## English

### Pronunciation

- /daɪs/
- /daIs/
- Rhymes with: -aɪs

### Noun

dice-
- 1972, (translation), Einstein: The Life and Times, Avon Books
- I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice.

- 1926 December 12, Albert Einstein, letter to Max Born
- Jedenfalls bin ich überzeugt, dass der Alte nicht würfelt.

- 1972, (translation), Einstein: The Life and Times, Avon Books
- An alternative singular of die when the plural is dice.
- 1980, Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus, “The Winner Takes It
All”, Super Trouper, Polar Music
- The gods may throw a dice / Their minds as cold as ice

- 1980, Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus, “The Winner Takes It
All”, Super Trouper, Polar Music

#### Usage notes

The singular usage is considered incorrect by many authorities. However, it should be noted that some authoritative sources state that “In modern standard English, the singular die (rather than dice) is uncommon. Dice is used for both the singular and the plural.”#### Translations

to cut into small cubes

### Related terms

### See also

## Italian

### Verb form

dice- Says.

## Spanish

### Verb

es-verb-form decir# Extensive Definition

- For other uses, see either Die or Dice (disambiguation).

Dice (the plural of Die, from Old French dé,
from Latin
datum "something given or played") are small polyhedral objects, usually
cubic, used for generating random
numbers or other symbols. This makes dice suitable
as gambling devices,
especially for craps or
sic bo, or
for use in non-gambling tabletop
games.

A traditional die is a cube
(often with corners slightly rounded), marked on each of its six
faces with a different number of circular patches or pits called
pips. All of these pips have the same appearance within a pair, or
larger set of dice, and are sized for ease of recognizing the
pattern formed by the pips on a face. The design as a whole is
aimed at each die providing one randomly determined integer, in the range from one
to six, with each of those values being equally likely.

More generally, a variety of analogous devices
are often described as dice, but necessarily in a context, or with
a word or two preceding "die" or "dice", that avoids the assumption
that traditional dice are intended. Such specialized dice may have
cubical or other polyhedral shapes, with faces marked with various
collections of symbols, and be used to produce other random results
than one through six. There are also "loaded" or "crooked" dice
(especially otherwise traditional ones), meant to produce skewed or
even predictable results, for purposes of deception or
amusement.

## Ordinary dice

The common dice are small cubes 1
to 2 cm along an edge (16mm being the standard), whose faces are
numbered from one to six (usually by patterns of dots called pips).
It is traditional to assign pairs of numbers that total seven to
opposite faces (it has been since at least classical
antiquity); this implies that at one vertex
the faces 1, 2 and 3 intersect. It leaves one other abstract design
choice: the faces representing 1, 2 and 3 respectively can be
placed in either
clockwise or counterclockwise order about this vertex.

The pips on traditional European-style dice are
arranged in specific patterns. The face with two usually has the
dots in opposite corners, with the third face containing one
between these two. The fourth face has one in each corner, and the
fifth adds one in the center, forming a quincunx. The final face has
two rows of three pips along opposite edges of the face. Pips on
Asian-style dice are in a similar pattern, but are typically closer
to the centre of the die, and the "one" pip is larger than the
others. A unique feature about Asian dice is the fact that the pips
for both "one" and "four" are colored red. Why this is so is
unknown. But it is suggested that an entirely black and white color
combination on the one side would be unlucky and red (a lucky color
in Chinese culture) would counteract this. Several legends also
mention that the "four" side is colored red because a Chinese
emperor (one legend said it was a Ming dynasty
emperor, while another stated it was
Chung Tsung) ordered it as "fours" helped him win a dice game
(sugoroku) against his
empress. This story, however, is questionable at best, as it is
also probable that "red fours" are also of common Indian
origin.

Dice are thrown to provide random numbers for gambling and other games, and thus are a type of
hardware random number generator. The result of a die roll is
random in the sense of lacking predictability, not lacking cause.
Exactly how dice are thrown determines how they will land according
to the laws of classical
mechanics. However, dice also can exhibit sensitive
dependence on initial conditions, making it difficult to
predict the outcome of a die roll even with good information about
exactly how it is thrown. Also, because the numbers on typical dice
are marked with small indentations, slightly more material is
removed from the higher numbered faces. This results in a small
bias, and they do not provide fair (uniform) random numbers. The
bias is reduced somewhat in the Japanese die with its oversized
single pip (pictured). Casino dice have markings that are flush
with the surface and come very close to providing true uniformly
distributed random numbers.

Dice are thrown, singly or in groups, from the
hand or from a cup or box designed for the purpose, onto a flat
surface. The face of each die that is uppermost when it comes to
rest provides the value of the throw. A typical dice game
today is craps, wherein
two dice are thrown at a time, and wagers are made on the total
value of up-facing pips on the two dice. They are also frequently
used to randomize allowable moves in board games,
usually by deciding the distance through which a piece will move
along the board; examples of this are ludo
and backgammon.

### Precision dice

Precision casino dice, used for the game of craps, may have a polished finish, making them transparent, or a sand finish, making them translucent. Casino dice have their pips drilled, and then filled flush with a paint of the same density as the acetate used for the dice, such that the dice remain in balance. In casino play, a stick of 5 dice are used, all stamped with a matching serial number to prevent a cheat from substituting a die.Precision backgammon dice are also made
with the pips filled in as with casino dice. While casino dice are
noticeably larger than common dice, with sharp edges and corners,
precision backgammon dice tend to be somewhat smaller. Their
corners and edges are beveled to allow greater movement inside the
dice cup and prevent chaotic rolls from damaging the playing
surface.

## History

Dice were probably originally made from the ankle bones (specifically the talus or "astragalus") of hoofed animals (such as oxen), colloquially known as "knucklebones", which are approximately tetrahedral. Modern Mongolians still use such bones, known as shagai, for games and fortunetelling. In addition to bone, ivory, wood, metal, and stone materials have been commonly used. Recently, the use of plastics, including cellulose acetate and bakelite, is nearly universal. It is almost impossible to trace clearly the development of dice as distinguished from knucklebones, because ancient writers confused the two. It is certain, however, that both were used in prehistoric times.Dice have been used throughout Asia since before
recorded history.

The oldest known dice were excavated as part of a
5000-year-old backgammon set, at the
Burnt
City archeological site in south-eastern Iran. Excavations from
ancient tombs in the Harappan
civilization, seem to further indicate a South Asian
origin. Dicing is mentioned as an Indian
game in the Rig
Veda, Atharva Veda
and Buddha
games list. It is also mentioned in the great Hindu epic, the
Mahabharata,
where Yudhisthira
plays a game of dice against the Kauravas for the
northern kingdom of Hastinapura. In
its primitive form knucklebones was essentially a game of
skill played by women and children. In a derivative form of
knucklebones, the four sides of the bones received different values
and were counted as with modern dice. Gambling with three or
sometimes two dice was a very popular form of amusement in Greece, especially
with the upper classes, and was an almost invariable accompaniment
to symposia.

The Romans
were passionate gamblers, especially in the luxurious days of the
Roman
Empire, and dicing was a favorite form, though it was forbidden
except during the Saturnalia.
Horace
derided what he presented as a typical youth of the period, who wasted
his time amid the dangers of dicing instead of taming his charger and giving himself up to
the hardships of the chase. Throwing dice for money was the cause
of many special laws in
Rome. One of
these stated that no suit could be brought by a
person who allowed gambling in his house, even if he had been
cheated or assaulted. Professional gamblers were common, and some
of their loaded dice are preserved in museums. The common public-houses
were the resorts of gamblers, and a fresco is extant showing two
quarrelling dicers being ejected by the indignant host.

Tacitus
states that the Germans
were passionately fond of dicing, so much so, indeed, that, having
lost everything, they would even stake their personal liberty.
Centuries later, during the Middle Ages, dicing became the favorite
pastime of the knights,
and both dicing schools and guilds of dicers existed. After the
downfall of feudalism
the famous German mercenaries called landsknechts established a
reputation as the most notorious dicing gamblers of their time.
Many of the dice of the period were curiously carved in the images
of men and beasts. In France both knights
and ladies were given to dicing. This persisted through repeated
legislation, including interdictions on the part of St.
Louis in 1254 and 1256.

In China, India, Japan, Korea, and other
Asiatic countries, dice have always been popular and are so still.
The markings on Chinese
dominoes evolved from the markings on dice, taken two at a
time.

## Terms

While the terms ace, deuce, trey, cater, cinque
and sice are hardly common today having been replaced with the
ordinary names of the numbers one to six, they are still used by
some professional gamblers to describe the different sides of the
dice. Ace is
from the Latin as, meaning "a unit" http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/ace;
the others are the numbers 2–6 in old French. (The dice
game marketed as Kismet
uses ace, deuce, and trey.)

#### Notation

In many modern gaming contexts, the count and
number of sides of dice to be rolled at any given time is reduced
to a common set of notations. Typically this involves the
lower-case letter "d", preceded by a die count and followed by
(optionally) the number of sides of the dice. For example, 6d8 or
2d6; the former meaning "six eight-sided dice," and the latter
meaning "two six-sided dice." Addition or various other arithmetic
operations are often added at the end as well, e.g. 3d6+4 "three
six-sided dice plus four to the outcome thereof".

### Crooked dice

"Crooked dice" refers to dice that have been
altered in some way to change the distribution of their
outcome.

#### Loaded dice

A loaded or gaffed die is a die that has been tampered with to land with a selected side facing upwards more often than it otherwise would simply by chance. There are methods of creating loaded dice, including having some edges round and other sharp and slightly off square faces. If the dice are not transparent, weights can be added to one side or the other. They can be modified to produce winners ("passers") or losers ("miss-outs"). "Tappers" have a drop of mercury in a reservoir at the center of the cube, with a capillary tube leading to another mercury reservoir at the side of the cube. The load is activated by tapping the die on the table so that the mercury leaves the center and travels to the side. Often one can see the circle of the cut used to remove the face and bury the weight. In a professional die, the weight is inserted in manufacture; in the case of a wooden die, this can be done by carving the die around a heavy inclusion, like a pebble around which a tree has grown.A variable loaded die is hollow with a small
weight and a semi-solid substance inside, usually wax, whose melting
point is just lower than the temperature of the human body.
This allows the cheater to change the loading of the die by
breathing on it or holding it firmly in hand, causing the wax to
melt and the weight to drift down, making the chosen opposite face
more likely to land up. A less common type of variable die can be
made by inserting a magnet into the die and embedding
a coil of wire in the game table. Then, either leave the current
off and let the die roll unchanged or run current through the coil
to increase the likelihood that the north side or the south side
will land on the bottom depending on the direction of the
current.

Plastic dice can be biased to roll a certain
number by heating them (for example in an oven) with the desired
face upward, so that the plastic will soften slightly and "pool" at
the opposite (bottom) side of the die without showing much, if any,
visible distortion.

#### Cheat dice

Cheat dice (see below) are often sold as loaded dice but usually are not technically loaded.#### Shaved dice

A die can be "shaved" on one side i.e. slightly shorter in one dimension, making it slightly rectangular and thus affecting its outcome. One countermeasure employed by casinos against shaved dice is to measure the dice with a micrometer.## Variants

### Dice with faces other than digit sequences

As noted, the faces of most dice are labeled using an unbroken series of whole numbers, starting at one (rarely zero), expressed with either pips or digits. Common exceptions include:- color dice (e.g., with the colors of the playing pieces used in a game)
- Poker dice, with labels reminiscent of playing cards. Several varieties exist, but the most common contain the following pattern: 9♣, 10♦, Jack (blue), Queen (green), King (red), A♠
- dice with letters (e.g. in Boggle)
- average dice (2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5) (In some war games, units are identified as regulars or irregulars. Because regulars are more predictable, the strength of a regular unit is multiplied by an average die. For this reason, average dice are jocularly called regular dice.)
- cheat dice, such as:
- one face each with two through five, and two with sixes, or
- for craps, a pair of dice in which one die has five on each face, and its mate has a mixture of twos and sixes, guaranteeing rolls of seven or 11.

- dice with a single sequence of markings repeated multiple
times, for example:
- a cubical die numbered twice from 1 to 3, or thrice from 1 to 2.
- icosahedral dice numbered twice from 1 to 10 (commonly used in Dungeons & Dragons before the popularization of ten-sided dice).
- Fudge dice, numbered twice from −1 to 1, represented as −, blank, +.

- random direction dice, also known as scatter dice. The dice have arrows on each side; the outcome of a roll is a random direction. Scatter dice are used in tabletop wargames such as Warhammer Fantasy Battle to determine random movements of troops, wind direction or direction of misfired arms. Note that this is an unusual case where the majority of the time the die is read not according to which symbol is shown on its uppermost face, but its compass orientation.
- A doubling cube with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 is used in backgammon and some other boardgames. This die is not actually rolled; it is used to denote the current stakes of the game. There is also a doubling octahedron with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128.
- Some board games use dice with positive and negative numbers for use in gain or loss of something.
- Sicherman dice, a pair having the same odds of rolling a given sum as a pair of standard six-sided dice, but with different markings: one die has 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8, and the other has 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, and 4. Sicherman dice are the only such alternative arrangement if positive whole numbers are used.
- I
Ching dice such as
- Eight-sided dice bearing the eight trigrams
- Six-sided dice bearing yin and yang twice each, and old yin and old yang once each

- "Projector dice" which are clear and marked only on one of each pair of opposing faces. For a "six"-sided die, e.g., a clear twelve sided-shape is used. Rolled on an overhead projector such a die will have the top or bottom marking equally readable.

### Non-cubical dice

Some dice are polyhedral other than cubical in shape. They became popular around the early 1950s among players of wargames and have since been used extensively in trading card games, German-style board games, and role-playing games. Although polyhedral dice are a relative novelty during modern times, some ancient cultures appear to have used them in games (as evidenced by the presence of two icosahedral dice dating from the days of ancient Rome on display in the British Museum). Such dice are typically plastic, and have faces bearing numerals rather than patterns of dots. Reciprocally symmetric numerals are distinguished with a dot in the lower right corner (6. vs 9.) or by being underlined (6 vs 9).The platonic
solids are commonly used to make dice of 4, 6, 8, 12, and 20
faces. Other shapes can be found to make dice with other numbers of
faces, but other than the 10 sided, they are rarely used. (See
Zocchihedron.)
The 4 sided platonic solid is difficult to roll, and a few games
like Daldøs use a 4
sided rolling pin instead.

A large number of different probability
distributions can be obtained using these dice in various ways;
for example, 10-sided
dice (or 20-sided dice labeled with single digits) are often
used in pairs to produce a
uniform distribution of random percentages. Summing multiple
dice approximates a normal
distribution (a "bell curve"), while eliminating high or low
throws can be used to skew the distribution in various ways. Using
these techniques, games can closely approximate the real
probability distributions of the events they simulate.

There is some controversy over whether
manufacturing processes create genuinely "fair" dice (dice that
roll with even distributions over their number span). Casino dice are
legally required to be fair; those used by others hold no such
requirement.

Spherical dice also exist; these function like
the plain cubic dice, but have an octahedral internal cavity in
which a weight moves which causes them to settle in one of six
orientations when rolled. However, these dice are somewhat awkward
in use because they require a flat and level surface to roll
properly — an uneven surface often causes them to stop partway
between two numbers, while a sloped surface will obviously cause
the dice to keep rolling.

Cowry shells or
coins may be used as a kind
of two-sided dice. (Because of their shape, cowry shells probably
do not yield a
uniform distribution.)

#### Standard variations

The most common non-cubical dice —
often sold in sets of five or six that are each differently shaped
but with the same pair of background and marking colors —
include one each of the five Platonic
solids, which are highly symmetrical. The six-die versions add
the pentagonal trapezohedron, in which
the faces (identical to one another as to angles and edge lengths)
each have two different lengths of side, and three different sizes
of angle; the corners at which multiple faces meet are also of two
different kinds.

The full geometric set of "uniform fair dice"
(face-transitive)
are:

- Platonic solids: 5 regular polyhedra: (4, 6, 8, 12, 20 sides)
- Catalan solids: 13 Archimedean duals: (12, 24, 30, 48, 60, 120 sides)
- Bipyramids: infinite set of prism duals, triangle faces: (6, 8, 10, 12, ... sides)
- Trapezohedrons: infinite set of antiprism duals, kite faces: (6, 8, 10, 12, ... sides)
- Disphenoids: infinite set of tetrahedra made from congruent non-regular triangles (4 sides)
- "Rolling-pin style dice" (also called "rolling logs" http://hometown.aol.com/dicetalk/polymor2.htm) are the only way to make dice with an odd number of faceshttp://hjem.get2net.dk/Klaudius/Dice.htm. They are based on an infinite set of prisms. All the (rectangular) faces they may actually land on are congruent, so they are equally fair. (The other 2 sides of the prism are rounded or capped with a pyramid, designed so that the dice never actually rests on those faces.)

## Probability

For a single roll of a fair s-sided die, the probability of rolling each value, 1 through s, is exactly 1/s. This is an example of a discrete uniform distribution. For a double roll, however, the total of both rolls is not evenly distributed, but is distributed in a triangular curve. For two six-sided dice, for example, the probability distribution is as follows:For three or more die rolls, the curve becomes
more bell-shaped
with each additional die (according to the central
limit theorem). The exact probability distribution F_ of a sum
of i s-sided dice can be calculated as the repeated convolution of the
single-die probability distribution with itself.

- F_(k) = \sum_n \,

A fastest algorithm would adapt the exponentiation
by squaring algorithm, using F_(k) = \sum_n \,.

For example, in the triangular curve described
above, Equivalently, one can calculate the probability using
combinations:

F_(k)=\frac\sum_^ (-1)^n

The probability of rolling any exact sequence of
numbers is simply \frac. For example, the chance of rolling 1, 2,
and 3 in that order with three rolls of a six-sided die is \frac,
or \frac.

The article
Sampling equiprobably with dice describes the probabilities of
sampling with dice from any range.

## Application in role-playing games

While polyhedral dice had previously been used in
teaching basic arithmetic, the fantasy role-playing
game Dungeons
& Dragons is largely credited with popularizing their use
in roleplaying games. Some games use only one type, such as
Exalted
which uses only ten sided dice, while others use numerous types for
different game purposes, such as Dungeons
& Dragons, which make use of 20-, 12-, 10-, 8- and 4-sided
dice in addition to the traditional 6 sided die. Unlike the common
six sided die, these dice often have the numbers engraved on them
rather than a series of dots.

Roleplaying games generally use dice to determine
the outcome of events, such as the success or failure of actions
which are difficult to perform. A player may have to roll dice for
combat, skill use, or magic use, amongst other things. This is
generally considered fairer than decision by game master
fiat, since success and failure are decided randomly based on a
flat probability. Games typically determine success as either a
total on one or more dice above (Dungeons & Dragons third
edition) or below (Call of Cthulhu) a target number, or a certain
number of rolls above a certain number (such as 8 or higher on a
d10) on one or more dice (White Wolf's World of Darkness series).
The player may gain a bonus or penalty due to circumstances or
character skill, usually either by a number added to or subtracted
from the final result, or by having the player roll extra or fewer
dice.

Dice can also be used by a game master for other
purposes, such as to randomly generate game content or to make
arbitrary decisions. Some games use dice to determine what
attributes the player's character has when created, such as how
strong he or she is.

In Dungeons & Dragons and some other
roleplaying games which use many types of dice, a dice
notation is used. For example, a six-sided die is referred to
as a d6, while two such dice rolled with the results totaled would
be called 2d6. A bonus or penalty applied to the final result is
referred to like 2d6+4 or 2d6-2. Games which use only one type of
dice rarely require complex dice notation.

A common special case is percentile rolls,
referred to in dice notation as 1d100 or 1d%. Since actual
hundred-sided dice are large, almost spherical, and difficult to
read, percentile rolls are generally handled by rolling two
ten-sided dice together, using one as the "tens" and the other as
the "units". A roll of ten or zero on either die is taken as a
zero, unless both are zeros or tens, in which case this is 100
(rather than zero). To avoid this confusion, sets of percentile
dice exist where one is marked in tens (00, 10, 20... up to 90) and
the other from 0 to 9.

Dice for role-playing games are usually made of
plastic, though infrequently metal, wood, and semi-precious stone
dice can be found. Early polyhedral dice from the 1970s and 1980s
were made of a soft plastic that would easily wear as the die was
used. Typical wear and tear would gradually round the corners and
edges of the die until it was unusable. Many early dice were
unmarked and players took great care in painting their sets of
dice. Some twenty-sided dice of this era were numbered zero through
nine twice; half of the numbers had to be painted a contrasting
color to signify the "high" faces. Such a die could also double as
a ten-sided die by ignoring the distinguishing coloring.

## Use of dice for divination

Some people believe that dice can be used for
divination. Using
dice for such a purpose is called cleromancy. A pair of
standard 6-sided dice is usual though other forms of polyhedra can
be used. Tibetan Buddhists sometimes use this method of
divination.

It is uncertain if the Pythagoreans used the
"Platonic
Solids" as dice, but it is highly likely. They referred to
these perfect geometries as "The Dice of the Gods". Julia E.
Diggins, writer of "String, Straightedge, and Shadow" (Viking
Press, New York, 1965) writes how the Pythagorean Brotherhood
sought to understand the mysteries of the Universe through an
understanding of geometry in polyhedra. It is recorded that the
dodecahedron (12 sided platonic solid) was discovered by
Pythagoras. (Guthrie: The Pythagorean Sourcebook)

Astrological dice are a specialized set of three
12-sided dice for divination, using the concepts of astrology and containing
astrological symbols for the planets, the zodiac signs and the astrological
houses. The first die represents planets, the Sun, the Moon, and two nodes
(North Node and South Node). The second die represents the 12
zodiac signs, and the third represents the 12 houses. In simplified
terms, the planets, etc. could represent the 'actor'; the zodiac
signs could represent the 'role' being played by the actor; and the
house could represent the 'scene' in which the actor plays.

Rune dice are a
specialized set of dice for divination (runecasting), using the
symbols of the runes
printed on the dice.

An icosahedron is used to provide the answers of
a Magic
8-Ball, which is conventionally used to provide advice on
yes-or-no questions.

## See also

## References

- Persi Diaconis and Joseph B. Keller. "Fair Dice". The American Mathematical Monthly, 96(4):337-339, 1989. (Discussion of dice that are fair "by symmetry" and "by continuity".)
- Bias and Runs in Dice Throwing and Recording: A Few Million Throws. G. R. Iverson. W. H. Longcour, et al. Psychometrika, Vol. 36, No. 1, March 1971
- Knizia, Reiner (1999). Dice Games Properly Explained. Elliot Right Way Books. ISBN 0-7160-2112-9.

## External links

- Wolfram MathWorld: Dice Analysis of dice probabilities, also features Uspenski's work on rolling multiple dice.
- mathematically "Fair Dice"
- Fair Dice is an illustrated Math Games column about all the possible fair dice, and the mathematical reasons why other shapes are not fair.
- a complete list of all possible Fair Dice which has nice illustrations
- "Properties of Dice" describes all solids that make for provably fair dice, and gives more details about all possible Fair Dice
- The Bone Rollers' Guide to Polyhedral Solids describes how to design a fair dice and lists some ways to "stretch" dice in ways that are still fair.

- World's Largest Dice Collection Links, Photos, Information about dice
- Computer Simulation of Irregular Dice
- A Pair Of Dice Which Never Roll 7
- A Brief History of Dice (in Dungeons & Dragons games)
- The Dicer – Nice virtual hexahedron dice machine.
- The Dice Font - Easily add dice to any of your documents

dice in Arabic: نرد

dice in Bulgarian: Зар

dice in Catalan: Dau

dice in Czech: Hrací kostka

dice in Welsh: Dis

dice in Danish: Terning

dice in German: Spielwürfel

dice in Spanish: Dado

dice in Esperanto: Ĵetpluredro

dice in Persian: طاس

dice in French: Dé

dice in Korean: 주사위

dice in Croatian: Kocka (igra)

dice in Indonesian: Dadu (permainan)

dice in Italian: Dado (gioco)

dice in Hebrew: קוביית משחק

dice in Latin: Alea

dice in Lithuanian: Lošimo kauliukas

dice in Hungarian: Dobókocka

dice in Malay (macrolanguage): Dadu

dice in Dutch: Dobbelsteen

dice in Japanese: サイコロ

dice in Norwegian: Spillterning

dice in Low German: Wörpel (Speel)

dice in Polish: Kość do gry

dice in Portuguese: Dado

dice in Russian: Игральная кость

dice in Sicilian: Dadu (jocu)

dice in Simple English: Dice

dice in Slovenian: Igralna kocka

dice in Finnish: Noppa

dice in Swedish: Tärning

dice in Thai: ลูกเต๋า

dice in Vietnamese: Súc sắc

dice in Turkish: Zar (eğlence)

dice in Urdu: طاس

dice in Chinese: 骰子